Your own hosting
on HostGator ↓
Hosting account
with TibetBridges ↓
Subdomain account
with TibetBridges, TibetanGeeks, or WebWalker.to ↓

Frequently Asked Questions about managing websites
[ Search the FAQ ] [ Back to TibetBridges Help ]

how to take care of your website on the TibetBridges server ... or anywhere

Whether you are paying for your own hosting account, or getting hosting of domain or subdomain through TibetBridges — It's like renting a room in a building: Only you can take care of your own website on the server!

Here's how to take care of your "voice to the world":

Your own hosting account

There are many excellent web hosting companies. Most of the info below will apply to any good hosting company, but it is written is specifically for HostGator.com, my current favorite.

A hosting account through TibetBridges

The purpose of TibetBridges is for people who want to own their website. Hosting on TibetBridges is provided only for people and organisations we are working directly with, doing or learning web programming, server administration, etc.

A subdomain account under TibetBridges.com, TibetanGeeks.com, or WebWalker.to

The purpose of giving a subdomain is for people who want to own their website. A subdomain is provided only for people and organisations we are working directly with, doing or learning web programming, server administration, etc.

  Many thanks to Jeff Lebow, who provides and pays for these hosting accounts at HostGator.

the questions: hosting website setup your account administration email uploading files website statistics domain registration website programs some general questions general help resources

Web hosting Where your website lives - your "room" in a big house

is TibetBridges right for you?

  Q1 What is TibetBridges for? you who want to learn
Q2 Do i pay for hosting or subdomain here? yes!
Q3 What does TibetBridges hosting provide? your own "house on the web" Q4 What does a TibetBridges subdomain provide? "a room in a house"
Q5 Do i have any responsibilities towards TibetBridges in return? yes!
Q6 Who can get a hosting account here? you who want to learn Q7 Who can get a subdomain account here? you who want to learn
Q8 So — should i use TibetBridges for hosting? maybe
  1. Is TibetBridges hosting secure? as secure as you make it
What are some good hosting companies? infos
How do i transfer my website to a new host? infos

website setup getting started

your account on TibetBridges at HostGator you're not done yet!

your dns and quotas

  1. I have changed my dns, but i am not seeing my site at the new web hosting. infos
  2. What is bandwidth? What does it mean i am over bandwidth limit? infos
  3. What is "disk quota"? What does it mean i am "over my disk quota"? infos

building your website

  1. How do i make a website? infos
  2. Wow this looks a lot harder than i thought!
    or ... But i need my website finished in two weeks! hmmmm! ...
  3. Will my web host (TibetBridges, HostGator, etc.) protect my website from getting hacked? that is your job
  4. What can i do to be sure my website gets hacked?! Oh it's easy ...

website administration

  1. What is a "control panel"? cPanel? infos
  2. Should i / Can i use https to access my cPanel? yes!
  3. Can you raise my disk quota? maybe
  4. Who is responsible to back up my website files and any other files i have on my site? you are!
  5. Can i have shell access? probably
  6. Can i have shell access? maybe
  7. Can i have shell access on my subdomain? no can do
  8. How do i make server-side includes (SSI) work on my website? infos
  9. How do i make server-side includes (SSI) work on my subdomain site? infos
  10. How do i find out how many people are looking at my website? infos
  11. How do i find out how many people are looking at my subdomain site? infos
  12. Will my site be visible inside China? probably not

email

  1. How do i make email accounts? infos
  2. How do i send email from from some other account, like my Gmail or Thunderbird, so that it looks like coming from my domain (like "From: info@mydomain.org")? infos
  3. How do i set up at Google Apps for my mail? infos
  4. How do i make mail lists? infos
  5. What is something to think about when using Google Apps, Google Groups, Yahoo Groups, Gmail, or Yahoo mail? privacy, protecting your friends

uploading files to the website

  1. How do i upload files to my website? infos
  2. What is "WinSCP"? What is "FTP"? "Filezilla"? infos
  3. My ftp account is not working with winscp (or other scp program) infos
  4. Are there other ways to send files to the website? infos
  5. What is the command in putty to upload files? no such thing
  6. I uploaded my files to my website, but i don't see them in the browser! infos
  7. The server is down! I can't upload my files! check your settings
  8. I can log in with ftp, but i don't see any file listings. check where you put them
  9. How do i make another account that can upload files (ftp account)? infos

domain registration

  1. How do i register a domain name? at a "domain registrar" on the web
  2. I don't know where my domain is registered! Can't you tell me? how would i know?
  3. I don't know my domain registration password! Can't you tell me? is your job

website programs

general questions

  1. How do i install programs like a CMS or forum on my website?? infos
  2. What about this "Fantastico" thing for installing web programs (on my own domain)? not really useful
  3. I can't remember my admin password to my gallery / photos / etc web program! hmmmm

programming

  1. Can i install a program that i wrote? infos
  2. Can i change configuration for PHP? infos
  3. Will you help me debug my web program? maybe

database

  1. How do i make a database on my domain? infos
  2. How do i make a database on my subdomain? infos
  3. I tried to make a database in my cPanel, but it won't let me. infos
  4. I tried to make a database in PHPMyAdmin, but it won't let me. can't do that
  5. My program is giving error when it tries to connect to the database. check your settings

Content Management Systems (CMS)

  1. What is a "CMS" (Drupal, Joomla, Wiki, WordPress, ...)? Content Management System
  2. Which CMS is better? it depends
  3. How do i upgrade my CMS to the new version? infos
  4. How can i find out more about CMSs? google!
  5. Will my web host (TibetBridges, HostGator, etc.) protect my CMS from getting hacked? that's your job

Gallery

  1. What is Gallery? An images CMS
  2. Which Gallery is better: version 1 or version 2? it depends
  3. How do i upgrade my Gallery to the new version? infos
  4. How can i find out more about Gallery? Google!

miscellanous other things

  1. What does "tld" mean? What is "yourdomain.tld"? Top Level Domain
  2. What is a "domain" or "domain name" it's a ... name ... hmmm
  3. What is a "subdomain"? a room in the domain's "house"
  4. What does "faq" mean? Frequently Asked Questions"
  5. How can i help TibetBridges to help me? Sensible email subject lines, and copy replies
  6. My cPanel icons don't look like the ones you show here. or, My cPanel features aren't where you describe them. infos
  7. I want my website to be really good, but i don't want to have to learn all these things. well then

more help

  1. is here

here are the answers! hosting account setup your account administration email uploading files domain registration website programs some general questions general help resources

 

TibetBridges at HostGator

  1. What is TibetBridges at HostGator for? Education and communication.
    • The purpose of this service is not to provide free hosting.
    • The hosting accounts provided here are for people who are learning web development, progamming, and administration, and are working directly with James Walker. People are expected to really own their websites, and to have the desire to keep learning.
    • More info here
  2. What does TibetBridges hosting provide? Full webhosting services, with programming support and cPanel
    • Services: virtual hosting, home directory, server-side includes (SSI), Fantastico for installing web apps.
    • Programming: PHP, Perl, MySQL databases, etc.
    • cPanel: There are different "control panels" for websites, like cPanel, Plesk, and others. These give you a nice graphical interface to administer your website. I think cPanel is the very best one — and so that's the one you have here.
    • Disk space: One of the drawbacks of cheaper hosting, is that we have to watch our disk space. We aren't "unlimited" like we were on the dedicated server.
      Look through your files and see if they are all really needed for your website. (more info)
      Jeff is offering us ftp storage on another server. So you can put extra files there, and even reference them from your website (images, documents, etc.).
    • Shell access: [more info]

    TibetBridges is hosted at HostGator.com. You can see all the facilities available at http://www.hostgator.com/resellers.shtml

  3. What does a TibetBridges subdomain provide? Most webhosting services, with programming support
    • Services: server-side includes (SSI)
    • Programming: PHP, Perl, MySQL databases, etc. You will need to contact me to set up a database.
    • Disk space: One of the drawbacks of cheaper hosting, is that we have to watch our disk space. We aren't "unlimited" like we were on the dedicated server.
      Look through your files and see if they are all really needed for your website. (more info)
      Jeff is offering us ftp storage on another server. So you can put extra files there, and even reference them from your website (images, documents, etc.).
  4. Who can get hosting here?
    • Focus on Tibetans: The hosting at TibetBridges is focused towards the Tibetan community. However other friends of Tibet are also hosted here.
    • Use for learning: This web hosting is intended for people who want to learn all they can about building and maintaining websites.
    • Anywhere in the world: Most of the people who have sites on TibetBridges are Tibetan Geeks in India, mainly Dharamshala — but also all around the world. See here for websites hosted on TibetBridges.
    • All of them are people who own their own websites.
  5. Do i pay for hosting here? Yes you do! You must:
    • keep site software updated and follow all security practices.
      I will be checking all sites periodically to make sure wordpress, plugins, etc are at the latest versions. I will send you a notice, and after one week i will disable any website that is not updated.
    • have an account on CloudFlare to protect your website.
      I will be checking all sites periodically to make sure they are on cloudflare, and i will disable any website that is not.

    This is to protect the other websites on the TibetBridges account, which ultimately protects Tibetans in Tibet. [more]

    You also should:
    • Remove any files from the site that are not being used.
      Backups, old version, content, should be stored on the organisation's or staff's machines, NOT on the web server. The Bad Guys love to find those files and use them for their own bad stuff. [more]
    • And please – if you move your website to another host, just Let us know!
      You don't have to sneak away! We are happy that you are finding the right hosting for you. Please tell us when you move your site, so we can keep our records updated, and free up the disk space for someone else.
  6. Do i have any responsibilities towards TibetBridges? Yes you do. And you may find the following things are helpful to you too!
    • learn as much as you can about making your website
      This is the purpose of TibetBridges!
      • Explore your cPanel, the links on this page, and the Wide Wonderful Web. Learn ALL the things!
      • Read this entire page, print it out, read it again later.
        It has answers to almost every question you will have as you work on your website.
      • More resources for learning how to make the Web are here and here
    • teach: Teach others what you have learned. A candle is not diminished by using its flame to light another candle — it only makes more light for all!
    • read and understand this faq: Then you own your website, you can take care of things yourself. And we have more time to teach others.
    • be working with James regularly regarding your website: Walker at WebWalker.to
      Why? Because purpose of TibetBridges.
    • be continually following security practices
      so your site does not endanger the other websites on the account (which ultimately endangers other people, especially Tibetans in Tibet). [more]
    • be an administrator: Administering the server is a big job, and could use more people. If you are interested in learning server administration, you could be part of the server team! Please contact me.

    James administers this server for the purpose of teaching web development and server administration. So you will be expected to listen patiently to lectures, warnings, advice, and technical information ... and even act on them!

  7. Use resources wisely:
    • Keep your records of your website information.
      All information about your website is yours. It does not belong to TibetBridges or to James, and we do not keep track of it. This includes your passwords, your domain registration information, etc.
    • Watch your disk usage and bandwidth.
      Clean up unneeded files, make sure your site users are real people and not spammers, etc.
  8. Should i use TibetBridges for hosting? TibetBridges is a professional level, secure, server with many features. Its purpose is:
    • as a learning environment
    • for people who want to be reponsible for their own websites
    • and who are always wanting to learn more.

    TibetBridges is not the right place for you ...

    • If you need a full package where things are taken care of for you.
    • If you don't want to learn everything you can about making your website.
    • If the only purpose of hosting on TibetBridges is because it is free.
    • If the only purpose of your website is to make money (purely commercial site).
    • If you have a very large important website, where guaranteed uptime, large bandwidth, special security needs and services, etc., are critical to your operation. You should find an appropriate hosting company and pay for those special services.

    TibetBridges may not the right place for you ...

    These are all fine things to need, there's nothing wrong with any of them — they are just not part of the mandate of TibetBridges hosting.
    There are many great and inexpensive hosting companies these days, in India and all over the world. Here are some ideas for finding good web hosting.

  9. Is TibetBridges hosting secure? TibetBridges is hosted at HostGator.com, a very large, professional, and high-quality hosting service. So their security would be good, if for no other reason than to protect their own servers!

    Given that, the most secure server in the world cannot protect you from shooting yourself in the foot. HostGator has an excellent article on the subject at http://blog.hostgator.com/2008/06/27/prevent-sites-from-being-hacked/
    And i agree with all of it.

    If your site is being built with CMS software: As important as basic security, and server security, is the CMS software you are using, how often it is updated, and especially the security knowledge of whoever is building the site/administering the CMS.

    Building websites used to be just fun. Now it has aspects of entering a war zone! But there we are.

general hosting questions

  1. Then what are some good hosting companies?
    There are many many, with many different options. So just like anything else that is powerful, you will still need to learn something to get the most out of it.
    Nobody can recommend a web host for you unless they know what you need and what your website needs.

    Some i have used myself, or heard good things about, are:
    A2Hosting.com (It is looking like A2Hosting may be the latest greatest hosting [oct 2013])
    BlueHost.com (tibetgov.net, worldbridges.info are here!)
    DreamHost.com (namgyalarchive.com and tibetanbridges.net are here)
    HostGator.com (tibetbridges.com, tibetangeeks.com, tibetanwomen.org, tchrd.org, and others are here, on TibetBridges)
    Here is a page comparing these hosting companies:
    http://tibetangeeks.com/technologies/web_development/web_hosting/web_hosting-compare.html

    You can find more comparisons and reviews through Google:
    http://www.google.com/#sclient=psy&hl=en&q=web+hosting+reviews&fp=83f87efc6f926f13
    Search google for 'web hosting' and see what is out there. Also search for 'web hosting reviews' and see what people have to say about them.
  2. How do i transfer my website to a new host?
    Howto is here.
    Links to more info is here:
    http://tibetangeeks.com/technologies/web_development/web_hosting/moving_website-links.html
 

Website setup getting started

  1. What do i do to get hosting at TibetBridges? Here's how:
    1. Read this FAQ. Then
    2. Contact James with the following information:
      • Who are you/your organisation?
      • Name and email of the contact person for the website
      • What is the website for?
      • How you will be working or learning with James with your website.
      • Who is building the site? Who will be updating it? Who is responsible for it?
      • Will the website be built in a CMS? Will it have programs on it? Will you need database? About how big (disk space) will the site be?
    3. When we get this information, we will set up the hosting account and send you your login name and password, and other useful info.
    4. Then you need to:
      • Decide when you are ready to have the site viewed from the new location. When you do the following, your domain name will point to your site here within minutes. So you may want to upload your website files first! ( How to upload files.)
      • When you are ready, you must "change the dns" at your domain name registrar. This will make your domain name point to your files here.
        1. Log in to the website where you have registered your domain name.
        2. Find the link to "manage your domain", "manage domain name servers", (or whatever they call it at your registrar). There will be something looking like
          ns1.something.com
          ns2.something.com
        3. Change these to the nameservers i will send you in email.
      • Then contact me to let me know this is done, and i will finish setting up your account.
  2. What do i do to get a subdomain here? Here's how:
    1. Read this FAQ. Then
    2. Contact James with the following information:
      • Who are you/your organisation?
      • Name and email of the contact person for the website
      • What is the website for?
      • How you will be working or learning with James with your website.
      • Who is building the site? Who will be updating it? Who is responsible for it?
      • Will the website be built in a CMS? Will it have programs on it? Will you need database? About how big (disk space) will the site be?
    3. When we get this information, we will set up the subdomain account and send you your login name and password, and other useful info.
 

Your Account on TibetBridges at HostGator you're not done yet!

login information

  1. Who is responsible to remember my account information? (passwords, login name, hostname to connect to, etc.) You are! (I don't take care of your RC number or your bank account number either.)
  2. I forgot my password (username / login info) , can you tell it to me? Nope!

    For password: i can't, even if i wanted to! This is good, it makes your password very safe. Nobody can see it, not even the owner of the server.

    • Here's why:
      When a password is made, it is encrypted, and saved in a database.
      When you go to log in to your account, the login program encrypts what you type for a password, and compares this encrypted string, with the encrypted string in the database. If they match, then the original passwords must be the same.
      It's a special type of encryption, called "one-way encryption". Nobody can reverse, or "un-encrypt" this kind of encryption, to get the original string.

    For your other info: All that is your responsibility, not mine. I have given over 100 accounts over the years. Not my job to remember all those! Your landlord doesn't keep the info about the lock on your room, or what is inside your room, either. Right?

  3. Then can you give me a new password? Yes, of course.
    • The total time doing this takes about half an hour (most of it being us emailing each other), and so this is half an hour taken away from other's time — i can't be teaching them, or helping them with their websites. Therefore, there needs to be something in return to repay my students and organisations for the time lost.
    • What would be most useful, is that you teach something — especially something you know that i don't! (Yes, there are many of those things :)
    • Also, please let me know how you are planning to preserve your login and other site information in future.
  4. The password you gave me is too hard to remember, can you give me an easier one?
    Or: I want to use my yahoo or gmail password for my hosting account.
    If a password is easy for you to remember, then it is easy for a hacker to guess!
    • It is not my problem if you want to put your own website in danger. But it is all of our problem, to protect the server and 100 other websites from hacking.
    • One of the first lines of defense, is a good password. Here are the steps to make a good password. It's easier than you think!
  5. Where should i keep my login infos? Why does it matter?

    The keys to your voice to the world!

your dns and quotas

  1. I have changed my dns, but i am not seeing my site at the new web hosting. What's wrong?
    This is probably due to what i call "lazy dns" at your ISP.
    ISPs keep a cache (storage) of DNS records, to save their bandwidth. I am guessing that your isp hasn't updated its DNS records yet, and that you are seeing a holding page at your registrar, or your website at the old host.
    One way to verify, is to go to DomainTools.com and check your site name in the "whois" and "dns" tools. It will show you the current dns records in real time.
    If all looks ok there (that is, your dns servers are showing up there as the ones you should have for TibetBridges), then the only thing to do is to wait about half an hour, and let your ISP update its cache. This means ... don't try to access your site doing that time! Because each time you do, your ISP caches the old DNS record again — keeps the old DNS record for longer.
    (Check out the three legs of a website and BleepingComputer tutorial to understand more how this works.)
  2. What is bandwidth? What does it mean i am over bandwidth limit?
    "bandwidth" is how many pages (and images, and css files, and ... and ...) people are getting from your website.
    If you have received a notice that your bandwidth is approaching the limit, do these things:
    1. In your cPanel awstats, find the ip numbers that are really hitting a lot on your website. (This is called a "Denial of Service" (DoS) attack.)
      (If you want, you can check the numbers online to see if they are known Bad Boys, at ProjectHoneyPot.org
    2. Now, in your cPanel → Security → IP Deny Manager, add that bad ip number, so it will be blocked.
      Not clear? The detailed how-to is here
    If you think you do really need more bandwidth
    Do all the above, plus
    Check your file sizes, especially images, sound, etc., and make sure they are as small as they can be.
    Now you are sure your site is getting popular and needs more bandwidth? Great! Contact James
    1. Explain how you are sure you really are getting more traffic:
    2. Explain step-by-step what you have done to check your bandwidth,
    3. Attach a screenshot for each of the steps. (Include the address bar of the browser please.)
    I can check, and happy to raise the limit for you temporarily. (Go here for more info about raising bandwidth limit.) [why bandwidth limit?]
  3. Can you raise my disk quota? I can, but first make sure you really need it, and also that your account is really full of files that you want.
    1. Check for unused files in your home directory and your web directories.
      You can see your files and directories with
      • Your file upload program
      • Your cPanel → Files section → Disk Space Usage
        Don't forget to check your home directory!
    2. Do you really use all the files that are there?
      If not: Delete them from the server. (Download the ones you want, of course!)
    3. Are you sure all files are your files?
      Sometimes a hacker will attack your site by breaking in and filling up your disk with files, or with some malware that will hurt your users. So again, make sure that all the files are being used by your site.
    4. Make sure that you don't have mailboxes filling up with spam!
      You shouldn't be receiving any email at your account here, it should all be forwarded to some other account, such as your gmail account.

    Then, when you are sure you have only the files you really use on your site, and you really need more disk space, please contact James. and i'm happy to fix you up! [why to have a disk quota?]

 

communicating

  1. Do i need to tell you if i shift my website to another host? Yes! Please please do.

    You don't have to sneak away! We are happy that you are finding the right hosting for you.
    And the thing is, there's no automatic way to know that a site has moved to another host. If you tell us, we can free up that space for someone else.
    Also, it saves me a lot of time — when i do notice a site is no more active, it takes a lot of checking and emailing to make sure it is really gone! After all, you don't want me to delete an account that is being used, right?

    Please contact James by email, phone, or through this form if you shift your site.
  2. Should i tell you if new staff is doing the website? Yes! Please do.

    It often happens that there is staff turnover, and new staff doesn't get all the information about the website. Sooner or later something breaks, and they call me.
    This isn't useful! It is better if they can get all the info about the site at the beginning.
    Also the reason for providing hosting, is to teach people how to make better websites. So we need to be in contact to do that.

    Please contact James by email, phone, or through this form if you are leaving the site to new staff .. or if you are the new staff!
 

building your website Here's your place - now what can you build there?

  1. How do i make a website? All websites are made with "code": html and css, sometimes javascript. So that's where we start.
  2. Wow this looks a lot harder than i thought!
    or: But i need my website finished in two weeks!
    Well yeah. Building websites is not easy. "That's why they pay us the big bucks" :)

    If it looks like you are in over your head, there are some other options for getting yourself a website:

    • Get someone to build it for you.
      There are a lot of people building websites. Their experience and abilities will vary, and so you still need to know something in order to pick a good one. Here are some Tibetans who build websites: http://tibetangeeks.com/geeks/tibetan_tech.html
    • Get a free "blog" account such as at Blogger.com or WordPress.com.
      or a paid "website-builder" account such as at Yola.com or many others (search on google for "website builder").
      Let them worry about the html and css for you, while you use a nice WYSIWYG editor to write your web pages.
  3. Will my web host (TibetBridges, HostGator, etc.) protect my website from getting hacked?

    Nope. You will!

    Again, it's just like having a room in a building. The building owner can make sure the walls are solid, and that there are doors, and bars on the windows. But if you don't lock your doors, or don't keep the bars closed, the monkeys can still get in! So in the end, protecting your website is up to you.

  4. What can i do to be sure my website gets hacked?!

    It's really easy. Just ...

    • Use easy passwords
    • Use the same password on many sites/accounts
    • Use MeSsIE for logging in to accounts
      (using MeSsIE at all, for anything!)
    • Use MSWindows

    Here's more ways your website gets hacked. (Unfortunately, most of them happen because of your actions :/ );

 

website administration

  1. What is a "control panel"? cPanel? you can do great things for your site with your control panel Is it a CMS(content-management system)? Is it for uploading files? Your website "control panel" can be called a "Web Site Management System" or a "Site Management Program".
    To start with, you can see the status of your account: how much disk space you are using, Then – you can make subdomains, mail ids to forward, do backups, password-protect directories on your website, see how many people are viewing your web pages, etc.
    There are different control panel programs. "cPanel" and "Plesk" are two of the most used. Dreamhost has its own control panel program they built themselves.
  2. Should i / Can i use https to access my cPanel? Yes! Always. Don't give your p*sw*d and precious site information away to the the bad guys.
    • Access your cPanel like this: http://yourdomain.org/securecpanel
      (Not like this: http://yourdomain.org/cpanel)
      Then you will be redirected to https://yourdomain.org:2083/
      See the "s" in https? — Now the connection is encrypted, and hackers can't read your password and other info through the connection.
    • OR
      go directly like this: https://yourdomain.org:2083/
    • You will get a "certificate warning" the first time you do that — that's ok — accept the certificate permanently, and it won't bother you again. why?
    • Other ways to access cPanel with https: http://support.hostgator.com/articles/cpanel/secure-cpanel-login
  3. Who is responsible to back up my website? You are!
    • This includes your html files, any php files or databases, any mail list archives — anything that is part of your account.
    • The hosting provider does backups as a courtesy only. You should always keep your own backups. It is your information!
    • Your cPanel has a nice function to do backups, See the "Backup" icon.
  4. Can i have shell access? Shell access is available. HostGator charges $10 for each shell account. You can transfer online to Jeff through PayPal, or give to me and i can transfer it to him. Then I will make the request to HostGator for shell for your account. Contact me if you want shell access.
  5. Can i have shell access? Sorry, we aren't able to do shell access on a subdomain.
  6. How do i make server-side includes (SSI) work on my website? You do this through your cPanel:
    Step one: Get to the setup page:
    In your web browser, go to the cPanel for your site (http://yoursite.tld/cpanel) and log in.
    Scroll down to the "Advanced" section, and click on the "Apache Handlers" icon Apache
    Step two: Do it
    A little form will come up.
    Notice some text underneath the words
    "System Defined handlers":
    One line says .cgi .pl   cgi-script
    Next line says .shtml   server-parsed
    Look back up a bit, at the form boxes underneath the words
    "Extension(s) Handler".
    In the first box, type .html
    In the second box (to the right) type server-parsed
    Click on "Add"
    Check the result: notice that those two words you typed will now appear underneath the '.shtml' line.
    Step three: Put some SSI on a page on your site, and reload it.
    Your server-side includes should now work!
    Explanation:
    These are called "apache handlers" because the server, named apache, "handles" the server side includes.
    The line that says .cgi .pl   cgi-script means that files ending in .cgi or .pl will be run as programs (cgi scripts).
    The line saying .shtml   server-parsed means that files ending in .shtml will be looked at by apache, to see if there are any server-side include lines inside. That is: apache has to *parse* the file.
    You have now told apache that you want it to look at (or "parse") all files ending in .html as well as .shtml.
    Want to know more?
    Cpanel help:
    • At the bottom of the left column of your Cpanel, "Documentation", click on "Click to view".
      In the left column navigation of that new page, click to open the "How do i use Cpanel" section, and scroll down to "Apache handlers".
    Other sites:
  7. How do i make server-side includes (SSI) work on my subdomain site? Just use includes
    Your site should already be set up to enable SSI.
  8. How do i find out how many people are looking at my website?
     
    1. In Cpanel, scroll down to the "Logs" section, and click on "Awstats"
    2. You will then see a list, with your domain, and subdomains if you have any.
    3. Click on the little next to the domain you want to see the stats for. (I am always wanting to click on the domain name text, silly me.)
    4. You will find many interesting things besides just how many people are looking at your site – You can see what pages they look at the most, what countries they are (maybe) coming from, what browser they were using, on what site they found your site, even what they were searching for in Google that brought them to your site!
    Want to know more?
    •  
      cPanel Video Tutorials – At the top of your cPanel page, in the "Preferences" section.
    • cPanel Text Tutorials and documentation – At the very bottom of your Cpanel page, click on the link "Documentation".
      Click on the second item in the main frame of that page, "CPanel User Guide", (which is presently at http://docs.cpanel.net/twiki/bin/view/AllDocumentation/CpanelDocs/WebHome)
    Other statistics services:
    • Google Webmaster Tools
    • Google Analytics
    • If you are using a CMS such as WordPress or Joomla, there will often be a plug-in that will give you nice statistics for your site. Search in the website for your CMS, or, of course, Google.
  9. How do i find out how many people are looking at my subdomain site?
    • You can use a service like Google Webmaster Tools
    • If you are using a CMS such as WordPress or Joomla, there will often be a plug-in that will give you nice statistics for your site. Search in the website for your CMS, or, of course, Google.
  10. Will my site be visible inside China?
    Probably not.
    As much as we wish it could be, it is beyond our control. The PRC government blocks sites, and even entire hosting companies, that have things they don't want their people to see.
    TibetBridges is on a large shared server, and if even part of it is unacceptable to China, the entire IP number block can't be seen in China.
    If it is really critical that your website be seen in China, you probably need to get your own "dedicated server" hosting account, with your own IP nunber ... and even then it's not guaranteed.
 

email and mail lists

  1. How do i make email accounts?

    The best way:

    • The best way we've found to handle mail, is to have one or more mail accounts at a real email provider, such as RiseUp.net, (Gmail and Yahoo will work, but they have privacy and security issues), and then make forwarders through cPanel, and alternate identities at the target mail, so that you can write email using the forwarder address.
    • How to add a forwarder:
      • In your cPanel, go the "Mail" section, and then "Forwarders."
      • In the first section, "Email Account Forwarders", click on "Add forwarder".
      • In the next screen, put the address you want people to use. For example, if you put info, then the forwarder will be info@yourdomain.org
      • Then in "Forward to email address:", put the address where you want the mail to end up, for example: myname@riseup.net
      • Then click "Add Forwarder"
      • The email will go to the address you gave. You don't have to do anything there to make it receive it.
    • But, we would also like to send the mail using that forwarder address, as an "alternate identity." Go here to see how.

    Other ways:

    • If you think you really need a mail account on your hosting, in your cPanel, go the "Mail" section, and then "Email Accounts."
      Some things to remember:
      • Email will use up some of your disk quota. Probably a *lot* of your disk quota.
      • We can't give more disk quota if the only purpose for the increase is mail.
      • Whenever you move the site to new hosting, you will need to move the mail also.
    • Another way to handle email is at Google Apps This can be very useful if you want to tie your people's emails in with Google Calendar, Docs, and other apps. But there are also some things to think about before you choose this.
  2. How do i send email from from some other account, like my Gmail or Thunderbird, so that it looks like coming from my domain (like "From: info@mydomain.org")?
    This is done by:
    1. In your mail client, (such as Yahoo, Gmail, Thunderbird, Outlook Express — wherever you get your mail) find the option to set up "alternate identities" or "other accounts" or some similar name.
      Add your domain mail address there, and whatever information your mail client needs.
      Some clients, such as Gmail, will test the address to make sure it belongs to you, by sending mail to it. You will reply to the mail from your mail client since it is forwarded to there. Then Gmail (or whatever service it is) will know you own that mail id.
      So you need to set this up *before* you delete the accounts at tibetbridges.
      Then you will be able to choose that address for sending your mail from.
    2. Then in my mail client, don't i have to use TibetBridges server to send the mail?
      No. Your mail client is using the mail server of its main mail account.
      When you do it from Thunderbird it is just the same as doing it in Gmail ... it is not a real account, and it doesn't use TibetBridge's mail (smtp) server. You set it up as a "virtual account" or "alternate identity" or whatever they call it in the app. And you are using the same mail (smtp) server that you would be using for your main mail account in your Thunderbird (or Eudora, or Outlook Express, or ...).
  3. How do i set up at Google Apps (or some other service) for my email?

    (Note: using Google Apps fully for everyone involved in the website, means that everyone has to have a Gmail account. Also, there are security and privacy concerns in using Gmail and Google Apps. Just so you know.)

    Ok, so you really want to use Google Apps! Here's how:

    1. You: get an account at the service, (such as at Google Apps)
    2. You: Download or POP any mail you already have at your account at TibetBridges
      cPanel Mail Email Accounts Do NOT make any email accounts here.
      If you have any mail accounts there from the past:
      1. If you have past email from these accounts, and you want it, download those mails.
      2. Then delete all accounts. You don't have any "real" mail accounts on TibetBridges when you have your domain email handled elsewhere.
    3. Me: chang the "MX record" for your account at TibetBridges so that all your domain mail goes to the new service.
    4. Detailed how-to is here
  4. How do i make mail lists?
    • In your cPanel, go the "Mail" section, and then "Mailing Lists."
    • Remember that mail lists archives will use up some of your disk quota.
    • One good place to get mail lists is at Riseup.net
    • Another way is with Google Groups or Yahoo Groups . . . but . . . then all the people on your list have to have a gmail or yahoo email address.
      And ...
  5. What is something to think about when using Gmail, Yahoo mail, Google Apps, Google Groups, Yahoo Groups, FaceBook, ...?
 

uploading files to the website

  1. How do i upload files to my website?
    We send our files to our website with a "file upload program".
    (This is actually the easiest part of making a website!)
    The file upload program is usually an "FTP program", and there are many programs that can do this. Some of these are FileZilla, CuteFTP, or Voyager for Windows, CyberDuck for Macintosh, FileZilla or GFTP for Linux.
  2. What is "FTP"? "Filezilla"? What is "WinSCP"?
    These are some programs to upload your web files to your website. (There are many others.)
    FTP program: Usually you would use an "ftp program" like FileZilla, CuteFTP, or Voyager.
    • Remember that the login name must include the domain name: myname@mydomain.tld.
    • After you log in, you will be in your web directory.
    • Now just drag and drop to upload your files.
    SCP or SFTP: If you have shell access, you can use an "scp program" like WinSCP, or the 'sftp' mode of an ftp program such as Filezilla. (These are both secure ways to send your files, that don't show your password or your data to hackers on the line.)
    • For the 'hostname' or 'server', type in your domain name.
    • The login name and password are the ones given for your website account.
    • (You were given some additional info when your account was created.)
    • When you log in, you will see the "home directory". This is NOT the website. Click on 'public_html' to get to the website directory.
    • Now just drag and drop to upload your files.
    • Learn more about using WinSCP at the WinSCP FAQ.
  3. My ftp account is not working with winscp (or other scp program)
    Your ftp account is not working in scp because it is not an scp account. It is an ftp account.
    Only the main (site owner) (cpanel) account, with shell enabled, is able to use scp. This is because scp needs a unix shell to work. And only the main account can have a unix shell,
  4. Are there other ways to send files to the website?
    • At the command line, you can use one of these:
      scp (unix), pscp (mswindows), or ftp (unix and mswindows).
    •  
      With a main hosting account, is also possible to edit and upload files through the Cpanel "File Manager", but that is usually too slow and not efficient.
  5. What is the command in putty to upload files?
    Sorry, putty can't upload files!
    Putty is an ssh program – its purpose is to connect your keyboard to the remote system. All the comands you type then, occur on the remote system. That's all it does, and it does it really well. But it can't transfer files from one system to another.
    While you are connected to a remote system through Putty, you can use "shell commands" such as ftp or scp to transfer files to another remote system.
    You can't transfer files back to your own Windows system because Windows doesn't know how to do that, unless you get an ssh server ... (and if you're thinking about that ... you are already beyond this question ... :)
  6. I uploaded my files to my website, but i don't see them in the browser!

    Check the following things first!

    If you are the site owner: If you uploaded your files into your "home directory", you can't see them on the web.
    When you use an scp or ftp program to upload your files, it will first show you your "home directory".
    • You will see two folders in your home directory called www and public_html. (The first is just a shortcut to the second.)
    • So — change into one of those directories, and upload your files there.
    • (If you did accidentally upload files into your home directory, you may want to delete those. They will apply to your disk space quota. Also they may confuse you the next time you are uploading files.)
    If you are not the site owner (that is, you are an ftp user, or have a subdomain):
    You may have just uploaded them into the wrong directory! Look in the other directories, and try again.
    For everyone:
    1. Look around the window of your file upload program, and read the error messages, they will really help you!
    2. Check in the "server-side" window of your ftp program.
      • Can you see the files there that you uploaded?
      • Are they in the directory that you meant them to be? (that is, the same directory that you are looking for them in the browser?)
      • Are the permissions on the files ok? (This shouldn't be a problem, but if you've tried everything else, it's worth checking.) For example, in Filezilla, look in the next-to-last column on the "server-side" window: files should be rw-r--r--.
    3. "Shift-reload" - Force your browser to really reload (refresh) the pages: Hold down the shift key while you press F5 or Ctrl-R, or while you click on the reload/refresh button.

    If you are still having problems, contact me and we'll figure it out. (I will need these things to be able to help.)

  7. The server is down! I can't upload my files! There are different things that could cause this problem. Read the error messages, they are put there to explain what is going wrong.
    • If the error message says something like "cannot connect" or "server is not responding":
      check if your internet connection is working. It is very unlikely that your site is down ... if it is, HostGator itself is down! (And i doubt that :)
    • If the error message says something like "authentication failed":
      then the server is up, and your ftp program is connecting. There is something wrong with the username and/or password:
      • So – check that you typed (or pasted) the username and password correctly.
      • If you are using an ftp account created in the Cpanel (this includes subdomain accounts), remember that your full login name includes your domain name.
        Example: If your ftp account is 'myname' and your domain is 'bigwebsite.org', your ftp login name is myname@bigwebsite.org.
      • If you have only an ftp account, and are trying to use an scp program (like WinSCP) – that won't work. You need to use an ftp program (like Filezilla).
      • If you are using an scp program (like WinSCP) remember that there was additional security information sent to you in email.
    • If you are still having problems, contact me and we'll figure it out. (I will need these things to be able to help.)
  8. I can log in with ftp, but i don't see any file listings.
    The ftp program must be set to "passive".
    (It usually is already set that way, so this rarely happens.)
    • In Filezilla or other graphical ftp program, check your settings.
    • In command-line ftp, type pasv
  9. How do i make another account that can upload files?
    This is called an "ftp account".
    It is more secure to have one or more ftp accounts to be used for uploading files to a website: showme

    Here's how to make an ftp account:
    • In your main cPanel → "Files" section → click on the "FTP Accounts" icon
    • In the first section, "Add FTP Account":
      1. User name: Make an account name
      2. Password: with a nice secure password.
      3. Folder path/name: The next box will give you a place to type in the directory for the account — to point to only where you want that person to have access. more
        cPanel will create a folder with that name, if it doesn't exist already.
        Examples -
        • An account for uploading to the main website:
          make the directory be www
        • An account for uploading to the images folder:
          make the directory be www/images
        (You can leave the box empty if you want them to be able to upload files everywhere on the website - probably not a good idea!)
      4. Disk Quota: Give a nice amount of space as quota. You can always raise it if needed. Unlimited quota?
    • Examples of ftp accounts:
      See the "Account Management" section lower down on the cpanel FTP accounts page.
    • Remember that their ftp login will be the username you typed in, together with your domain name, like this: username@yourdomain.tld
      username by itself won't work!
    • Remember that they can't use SFTP on this account — it will have to be plain FTP (the only drawback).
    • Remember not to send them their ftp account info in an email!
 

domain registration More information about how registration, dns, and hosting work is here

  1. How do i register a domain name?
    There are many official "registrars" throughout the world where you can register your domain name. You register through a form on their website, and pay online. It is all online, and all automatic!
    All registrars are not the same, some are better than others. You pay for what you get. My favorite safe, secure, and efficient registrar is Register4less
    More information about registration and hosting is at TibetanGeeks.com - Three Legs of a Website
  2. I don't know where my domain is registered! You are the technical person. Why can't you tell me?
    Domain registration is not a technical matter. Just like paying your office rent is not a construction matter! It is a business matter: It records who owns the domain name. So you keep those records with your other important papers. I am not your business person, and i don't keep those records. I only know about web technical things!
    There are many websites which have a tool called "whois". You can enter your domain name and find out where it is registered (and other info). One good one is domaintools.com
  3. I don't know my domain registration password! You helped me register it. Why can't you tell me?
    I showed you how to register domain names, so that you would have the power. The information about your domain is yours. Just like a worker may help you build your office. But he does not have the key! So you keep those records with your other important papers.
    If you have lost your record of your password, you can go the registrar website and fill out a "lost password" form there, or contact them.
 

website programs

general questions

  1. How do i install programs like CMS, chat or forums?
    1. The program will usually need a database.
      • If you have your own domain, you set up the database in your cPanel.
        Go here for excellent instructions on how to set up a database: http://helpdesk.bluehost.com/index.php/kb/article/000006
        (This is from BlueHost, but all CPanels are the same.)
      • If your site is a subdomain (you don't have your own hosting), contact me to set up the database for you.
    2. Download the program from its home website, and unzip them on your own machine.
    3. Upload those unzipped files to your site.
    4. In your web browser, go to the url where you uploaded the program files. There will be a page to help you configure the program.
    5. Note: you will really need to know more to install and use the programs. To get help and support for the programs, go to the website shown in the information about the program.
  2. What about this "Fantastico" thing for installing web programs (on my own domain)?
    Yes, you can install web programs through the Cpanel. In the cPanel, click on one of the icons as explained below, and then follow the instructions it will give you:
    Fifth row: Chatroom, PHP Chat, and Bulletin Board are three programs you can install on your website.
    Last row Fantastico
    Fantastico
    installs many other programs on your website.
    BUT:
    1) You may not be able to update the program, extensions and other things may not work properly, etc.
    So it is usually better to install the programs "manually", that is, by uploading and configuring the programs files.
    2) You still need to know more to install and use the programs.
    To get help and support for the programs, go to the website shown in the information about the program.
  3. I can't remember my admin password to my gallery / photos / etc web program.
    If your program was installed manually:
    Go to the admin section of the program – there is probably a link somewhere which will send the password to your email address, or have you go through some procedure in order to change the password.
    If your program was installed through "Fantastico":
    Log in to your Cpanel, then go to Fantastico and your web program to the part where you can "change password", and change it.

programming

  1. Can i install a program that i wrote?
    Yes of course
    Just upload your program files.
    If your program needs a database, see answer above.
  2. Can i change configuration for PHP?
    Yes – there's two ways to do this:
    Make a php.ini file, and upload it to your public_html directory. The settings here will be added to the site-wide php.ini, so you can add or override settings in this custom file.
    OR if you have your own domain:
    Use cPanel → EzConfig tool to make the change
  3. Will you help me debug my web program?
    I will be happy to, since what i am here for is to teach. I will need these things — you can send to me in an email or contact me.

database

  1. How do i make a database on my domain? In your cPanel:
    1. Scroll down to the "Database" section.
    2. Click the first icon, "MySQL databases".
    3. Now there are three steps to creating the database:
      1. Create the database
      2. Create a user with password
      3. Add the user to the database
    (Note that you can't make a database in the phpMyAdmin on your domain, like you do on your local machine. You have to make it in the cPanel.)
  2. How do i make a database on my subdomain? Just email or contact me and let me know you want a database
    I will need to know what it is for, and username/password you want.
    We can discuss this over phone or Skype, and i can set it up right away.
  3. I tried to make a database in my cPanel, but it won't let me. The most likely problem is, that you have used up your allowed databases.
    If you look on the left column in your cPanel, you will see what you are allowed to do on your website. You will see that "MySQL Databases" is set to a minimum. This is because web programs and databases open a security risk into the server. So we want to keep track of who is doing them.
    Just email or contact me and let me know you need another database, and what it is for. I can change your quota right away.
  4. I tried to make a database in PHPMyAdmin, but it won't let me. Yup. You can't do that there. You can't make a database in the phpMyAdmin on your domain, like you do on your local machine. You have to make it in the cPanel.
  5. My program is giving error when it tries to connect to the database. It could be one of several reasons – So first thing to check is, exactly what error is it giving?
    • In php, you can set your program to show errors. error_reporting(E_ALL) is one of your best friends. See what it says, your answer is there!
    • Is the password correct?
      • If you made a good, secure, password, it would have capital and lowercase letters, numbers, and punctuation. So it is easy to make a mistake when typing in this kind of password!
      • If you pasted the password into your program, make sure you didn't accidentally include a space in front of or after the password.
    • Is the db username correct?
      • It will be something like yourdomain_username.
      • You created it in the cPanel, like username, but then the cpanel puts yourdomain_ in front of it (so that it will be unique!).
    • Is the server name correct?
      • The server name should be localhost
      • Yes, that's right ... the same as when you are connecting to database on your own machine!
      • This is because every machine in the world, is localhost to itself. Just like every person in the world is me to themself.
      • Your program is on the TibetBridges server. And the database is on the TibetBridges server. So, your program still connects to the database at localhost.
 

CMS programs

  1. What is a CMS?
    CMS is short for "Content Management System".
    It is a program that lives on your web server, and makes it easier to add web pages.
    However, like anything powerful, the program itself is more complicated to install and maintain.
    There is more about CMS programs at TibetanGeeks.com
  2. Which CMS is better: WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, ... ?
    Again, like anything powerful, it is diffcult to say which is "better". It depends on what you need, and even on what your personal likes are.
    So again, there's no escape from learning some things, so you can find out what you need ... and what you like.
    Some ways to compare CMSs, at TibetanGeeks.com
    (I like WordPress. A lot.)
     
  3. How do i upgrade my (Joomla, Wordpress, ...)?
    WordPress can be upgraded through the admin page.
    Joomla needs to be upgraded manually (uploading the new files).
    Other CMS may have different ways.
    Fantastico (in the Cpanel) provides a way to do upgrades - BUT
    when i tried it i had some problems. Did a google, and apparently it is some problem in Fantastico upgrade scripts.
    So i wouldn't recommend upgrading through Fantastico.
    So bottom line is, you need to consult the documentation for your CMS.
    • You should always do upgrades. They fix security problems, as well as add features.
    • You should always back up your database and customised files, before doing the upgrade. Most of the time everything will go fine. But if the rare problem happens ... you will still be ok, after restoring.
     
  4. How can i find out more about how to use CMSs?
    CMSs are great, but like all powerful things it takes some learning and exploring to be good at them.
    • The documentation that comes installed with your CMS. You will see a link to it in your admin page.
    • The documentation and other helpful resources at the home page for your CMS.
    • Search Google: there are many great websites supporting the major CMSs.
    • Some starting points and links pages are at TibetanGeeks.com
     
  5. Will my web host (TibetBridges, HostGator, etc.) protect my CMS from getting hacked?

    We wish we could! But you know what?
    The main things that start the process of a website getting hacked are,

    • easy passwords
    • viruses on Windows computers

    And, i'm sorry to say, both those things are in the hands of the web developer — this means you.

Gallery  

  1. What is Gallery?
    Gallery is a specialised CMS for "photo galleries" or "photo album organizer" program
    • It can be used for a small photo gallery, or for a very big one with many photos.
    • It can be set up to use many languages.
    • You can change Gallery in many ways: how it looks, the kinds of things it does.
    • It is fairly easy to use, and there is much help online for it.
     
  2. Which Gallery is better: version 1 or version 2?
    Overall, version 2 is "better". It will be the one going on into the future.
    but Gallery v1 is perfectly fine.
    For the purposes of most of our websites, version 1 may actually be better for you to use right now, because:
    v2 needs a MySQL database — Most of us don't need that complication.
    v1 does useful things that v2 doesn't do yet.
    v1 has lots of languages and v2 doesn't have them yet.
    Here is a summary of the differences:
    1. Database: Gallery v2 uses a MySQL database. So it's a little more complicated to set up and to back up.
    2. Very large albums: Gallery v2 is better if your gallery is going to be really large - thousands of photos. (Most of us don't have galleries that large, so not a problem.)
    3. Interface (how you do things): In Gallery v2 the whole interface has changed. It is very good, but it is different. So it will take a little time to relearn how to do things.
    4. Install and configure: Gallery v2 is easier to configure. BUT – you don't have all the options (yet) that you do in Gallery v1.
    5. 'hidden images' and 'hidden albums': You can do these with Gallery v1. Gallery v2 will do this, later.
    6. Themes: Gallery v2 has much nicer designs.
    7. Voting: Only Gallery v1 has voting. Gallery v2 will do this, later. (Most of us don't use this feature in our galleries, so it doesn't matter.)
    8. Languages: "G1 and G2 both fully support alternate languages. G1 has an extensive set of languages available already, fully translated and ready to go. G2 is a little worse off in this regard, with only a few translations fully done, more fairly done and a lot that are mostly not done. Fortunately, all it takes is someone who speaks both languages and has some time. Maybe you could help?"
    9. The future: Eventually (a year or two?) Gallery v2 will be the only one. Gallery v1 will go away.
    There is a full comparison of the two at codex.gallery2.org/index.php/G1-G2_Comparison There is a nice chart at the end, showing features side-by-side.
     
  3. How do i upgrade my Gallery to the new version?
    It is recommended to migrate manually,
    Directions are at codex.gallery2.org/index.php/Gallery2:migration
    If it looks like a foreign language to you, contact me and i will help you learn how to do it.
    Fantastico (in the Cpanel) provides a way to do this upgrade - BUT
    when i tried it i had some problems. Did a google, and apparently it is some problem in Fantastico upgrade scripts.
    Install or upgrade through CVS: (Advanced way)
    The best way to install Gallery and stay up to date if you have shell access to your webserver is to use CVS.
    $ cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.sf.net:/cvsroot/gallery login
    (if it asks for a password, just hit enter)
    $ cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.sf.net:/cvsroot/gallery co gallery2
    SourceForge's CVS connection can be slow at times. But this approach is great because then any time you want to update your Gallery install all you have to do is do:
    $ cd gallery2
    $ cvs update -Pd
     
  4. How can i find out more about how to use Gallery?
    Gallery is a great program, but like all powerful things it takes some learning and exploring to be good at it.
 

miscellanous other things  

  1. What does "tld" mean? What is "yourdomain.tld"?
    "tld" means "Top Level Domain" (like .com, .org, etc.).
    "yourdomain.tld" is just a shorthand way to say: "use your own domain name here".
     
  2. What is a "domain" or "domain name"?
    The domain is main web address of a site. For example, the domain of this site is tibetbridges.com
    It's like a building, which may have many homes and shops in it.
     
  3. What is a "subdomain"?
    A subdomain is like a section of a domain, which can act as its own website. For example, the main TibetBridges website is at www.tibetbridges.com, and this faq is at help.tibetbridges.com.
    Here www and help are subdomains.
    It's like different people's rooms or shops in a building.
     
  4. What does "faq" mean?
    "faq" means "Frequently Asked Questions".
     
  5. How can i help TibetBridges to help me?
    • Your TB admin works with 20 to 40 emails in the course of the day. Sometimes more.
      Managing about 50 websites, and primary admin for about 16.
      If he can understand quickly what an email is about, he can answer it faster.
    • Summary - if any email has these things:
      1. The subject line is the subject of the email.
      2. If a reply, the body of the email contains all the previous emails (hit "Reply" to the most recent mail).
      3. If about a website, it mentions the domain name
      4. The more details you give, the more i can know!
      It will be easy for me to give you a fast answer.
      If not, it will take me longer — and then your email may get lost in the bottom of queue and get no answer!
    • Here's some explain if you need!
      • In your first email on a subject
        If you put in the subject line, the thing you want to talk about:
        Then, when i scan through my inbox, the subject line helps me decide "important, read it now!" or "just a friend, read it later".
        So — it makes a difference if the subject is "having problem with FTP on mydomain.com" ... or "tashi delek"!
      • In a follow-up email on the same subject
        If you reply to the previous email:
        Then: i can remember what we were talking about! (among all the other daily requests)
        It will have the subject line of the original email.
        Our entire conversation will be all in one email, so i have a record.
        If you can take a few seconds to find the most recent previous email on same subjct, and "Reply" to that, that will save me many minutes of finding it, checking my records, reminding myself what the whole thing is about making sure this is the the latest email so that i have all information, updating the current email, and finally ... if i still have time ... researching your problem and replying to you!
      • In any email
        If you give me as much details as possible:
        Then: i can figure things out faster!
        Remind me who you are, what website you are talking about, and ... are you talking about wordpress, php, html/css coding, or what?
        Remember -- i can't see you :) If i have take time to guess, or refer to previous emails, then the chances are lessened that i will get time to anser you at all!
     
  6. My cPanel icons don't look like the ones you show here. or, My cPanel features aren't where you describe them.
    There are different versions of cPanel, and also different "skins".
    So your cPanel may be arranged differently, and the icons may be different.
    So if you're not seeing what i am describing, just use your good brain and see what you can find!
     
  7. I want my website to be really good, but i don't want to have to learn all these things. Why can't some program just do everything for me?
    No problem! Choose any or all:   

    easy 1

    You can get someone, or some program, to do it for you – but you still have to know enough to be able to tell them/it what to do!

    1
      

    easy 2

    Doesn't your site ... your organisation ... the Tibetan cause ... deserve the best?

    2
      

    easy 3

    That physics law about conservation of energy:
    If it seems easier and less complicated at one level, it is just going to be harder and more complicated at another level.

    3
      

    easy 4

    You only get out of something what you put into it.

    4
      

    easy 5

    There's no such thing as a free lunch.

    5
 

here are some good places for more help

developing websites

website security

cPanel info

general website administration

Plato, who wrote one of the original manuals on living life and on the working of the mind, says,

"...Then anyone who leaves behind him a written manual, and likewise anyone who receives it, in the belief that such writing will be clear and certain, must be exceedingly simple-minded..."

I shall continue to be simple-minded, to try to be clear, to hope that all of you care as much about the web and about your own websites as we do, and to hope that you want to learn as much as you can about them.